A society usually refers to a large group of people involved in persistent social interaction or sharing of resources.
Communities in society are characterized by the patterns of the relationships between individuals who interact or share
resources with each other. Modern cities are typical instances of studying society.
The Basic Concept of Cyber-Physical Society
Cyber-Physical Society (or Cyber Physical Society) is a complex space where humans, machines and the natural
environment interact with each other, efficiently share resources in cyberspace, physical space and social
space and co-evolve with emerging patterns in different spaces.
A more general definition of Cyber Physical Society was given in : The Cyber Physical Society
is a multi-dimensional complex space that generates and evolves diverse subspaces to contain different types of
individuals interacting with, reflecting or influencing each other directly or through the cyber, physical, socio
and mental subspaces. Versatile individuals and socio roles coexist harmoniously yet evolve, provide appropriate
on-demand information, knowledge and services for each other, transform from one form into another, interact with
each other through various links, and self-organize according to socio value chains. It ensures healthy and
meaningful life of individuals, and maintains a reasonable rate of expansion of individuals in light of overall
capacity and the material, knowledge, and service flow cycles.
Cyber-Physical Society also refers to the study and practice on the theory, model and methodology on the Future
Interconnection Environment that links cyberspace, physical space, social space and mental space according to the
laws in these space and some general laws that needs further exploration.
Fig.1 (d) depicts a simple cyber-physical-socio space. Not only
individual’s behaviors but also socio interactions can be fed back into
the cyber space for further processing. Users have socio characteristics
and relations rather than isolated individuals. Sensors are limited in
ability to collect all information in the physical space, so users still
need to directly collect the significant information in the physical space
and then put them into the cyber space after analysis (including
experiment). Users can also change physical objects in the physical
space, which can also be fed back into the cyber space to reflect the
real-time situation. Users’ status, interests and knowledge evolve with
interacting with each other and operating the cyber space.
Humans consciously and subconsciously establish various links, emerge
semantic images and reason in mind, learn linking effect and rules, select
linked individuals to interact, and form closed loops through links while
co-experiencing in multiple spaces in lifetime. Machines are limited in
these abilities although various graph-based models have been used to link
resources in the cyber space. The following are fundamental limitations of
machine intelligence: (1) machines know little link and rules in the
physical space, physiological space, psychological space, socio space and
mental space, so it is not realistic to expect machines to discover laws
and solve problems in these spaces; and, (2) machines can only process
pre-designed algorithms and data structures in the cyber space. They are
limited in ability to go beyond the cyber space, to learn linking rules,
to know the effect of linking, and to explain computing results according
to physical, physiological, psychological and socio laws. Linking various
spaces will create a complex space, the
CP3SME. Diverse spaces will emerge, evolve, compete and cooperate with
each other to extend machine intelligence and human intelligence. From
multi-disciplinary perspective, paper  reviews previous ideas on
various links, introduces the concept of cyber-physical society, proposes
the ideal of the CP3SME including its definition, characteristics, and
multi-disciplinary revolution, and explores the methodology of linking
through spaces for cyber-physical-socio intelligence. The methodology
includes new models, principles, mechanisms, scientific issues, and
philosophical explanation. The CP3SME aims at an ideal environment for
humans to live and work. Exploration will go beyond previous ideals on
intelligence and computing.
Classification is the most basic method for organizing resources in the
physical space, cyber space, socio space and mental space. To create a
unified model that can effectively manage resources in different spaces is
a challenge. The Resource Space Model RSM is to manage versatile resources
with a multi-dimensional classification space. It supports generalization
and specialization on multi-dimensional classifications. The paper
 introduces the basic concepts of RSM, and proposes the Probabilistic
Resource Space Model, P-RSM, to deal with uncertainty in managing various
resources in different spaces of the cyber-physical society. P-RSM’s
normal forms, operations and integrity constraints are developed to
support effective management of the resource space. Characteristics of the
P-RSM are analyzed through experiments. This model also enables various
services to be described, discovered and composed from multiple dimensions
and abstraction levels with normal form and integrity guarantees.
The Future Interconnection Environment
As a cyber-infrastructure, the Internet has connected not only computers but
also various devices and the people who use the devices such as mobile phones
and smart watches. The Internet of Things is a technique that facilitates the
connection between the Internet and various devices. The rapid development of
various applications on the Internet has accelerated the expansion of data.
A significant transformation is to extend "Things" from devices to the physical
space and social space. The thought model for the Future Interconnection Environment
was proposed in 2004 . It includes the notion of the ternary universe
consists of the physical world, virtual world and mental world and a multi-level
reference architecture with the nature and devices at the bottom level followed
by the level of the Internet, sensor network, and mobile network, and intelligent
human-machine communities at the top level, which supports geographically dispersed
users to cooperatively accomplish tasks and solve problems by using the network to
actively promote the flow of material, energy, techniques, information, knowledge,
and services in this environment. An implementation architecture IMAGINE-1 for
e-science application was proposed . This is the first thought model
after the The Internet of Things was coined. It envisioned the development trend of the
Internet of Things and other research areas like fog computing.
Applications of Cyber-Physical Society
Putting computing into Cyber-Physical Society will significantly transform traditional computing.
Summarisation of things in cyber-physical society.
Studying the basis of interactions among physical objects,
data, people, and systems in cyber-physical-social space through a multi-dimensional lens of semantic computing, a creative
summarization mechanism was proposed as an effort toward the creative summarization of things, which is an open process of
interactions among physical objects, data, people, and systems in cyber-physical-social space through a multi-dimensional
lens of semantic computing .
Related Works and Events
In 2002, the notion of knowledge flow was proposed for connecting humans,
minds, and knowledge transmission devices as well as controlling the
process of knowledge sharing processes: "Knowledge flow is invisible, but
it works with any cooperative team no matter whether people intentionally
make use of it or not. We can imagine the following scenario of the
knowledge flow working with a cooperative team. Team members are linked
with various types of 'knowledge transmission belts' like the production
line. Any team member can put knowledge onto a proper belt, which then
automatically conveys the knowledge to the team member who requires it.
Any team member can get the required knowledge from the transmission
belt linked to him when performing his task. These transmission
belts together with the team members constitute a knowledge flow
network. People can raise the effectiveness of teamwork by properly
designing the network and controlling its execution process."  This
is the early description of the ideal of the Cyber Physical Society. We still do not know in-depth about the
'knowledge transmission belts', its form, mechanism and principle. "Human cognition and work processes are two inseparable parts of human
problem solving, however, the cognitive process is neglected in most
research on knowledge-intensive team Cooperation."  An approach for
modeling these two parts of the process for use by a distributed
co-operative team was proposed in 2003. The relation between knowledge flow network in mental
space and the citation network in artifact space was further studied in 2005: "The knowledge
flow network implicit in the citation network consists of knowledge flows
between nodes that process knowledge, including reasoning, fusing,
generalizing, inventing, and problem solving, by authors and co-authors." 
In 2003, virus in physical space, virus in cyber space, the Web,
individual, society, and ecosystem health were linked in the background of
fighting epidemics .
The authors pointed out: "Connecting nationwide systems through the Internet
could create a worldwide eco-environment management service system that
would help with collaborative monitoring, simulation, research,
management, and control of epidemic situations. Such a system should
include globally distributed resources--devices, information, knowledge,
and services--that could dynamically and intelligently collaborate to
provide effective just-in-time services on demand to help manage an
emerging crisis." This ideal is in line with the notions of Web of Things
or Internet of Things. In 2005, the effort to connect epidemic network in physical space and the cyber systems was made by Zhuge: "rules of bio-epidemic and e-epidemic inspire scientists to create a live, scalable interconnected environment for effectively managing situations in nature, society, and the digital virtual world." He also pointed out that "Various sensors and sensor networks, mobile digital devices, and robots extend the Internet to a pervasive interconnection environment, which can automatically monitor and collect societal information to form an ideal environment for simulation." 
In 2004, the ideal of a harmoniously evolved interconnection environment
Eco-Grid from ecosystem point of view was proposed in : "Designed as a complex
ecosystem, it balances the competing interests of its numerous species as
its social, economic and technological environments evolve." "An Eco-Grid
is an open worldwide interconnection environment reflecting the
characteristics of natural ecological environments. Its versatile
resources and social roles coexist harmoniously yet evolve, provide
appropriate on-demand services to one another, are transformed from one
form to another, and communicate in terms of information, knowledge, and
service flows through social and economic value chains. It maintains a
reasonable rate of expansion of useful resources and assimilates waste
resources in light of overall environment capacity."
In 2004, The Knowledge Grid pointed out in Chaper 1 "The Knowledge Grid
Methodology" : "Modern communication facilitates like the Internet provide people with
unprecedented social opportunities for knowledge generation and sharing.
However, our increasing computing power and communication bandwidth does
not of itself improve this knowledge generation and sharing. To do this,
the semantic ability of the facilities that transmit and store knowledge
must be improved. Improving our social interaction in this way would help
enrich knowledge in our society by supporting social activities at
different levels (both the physical and the mental level) and in different
environment spaces" and "The Knowledge Grid is a virtual socio grid, where people enjoy and
provide services through versatile flow cycles like control flows,
material flows, energy flows, information flows and knowledge flows". The methodology is also a valuable reference when developing the Cyber
The Ternary Universe
In 2005, the ideal of the future interconnection environment that connects
the nature, society and cyber world was proposed in . Zhuge emphasized the importance of harmonious development of
the nature, society, environment and cyber world: "Networks pervade
nature, society, and virtual worlds, giving structure and function to a
variety of resources and behaviors. Discovering the rules that govern the
future interconnection environment is a major challenge." A set of
parameters of the future interconnection environment was proposed.
"As Figure 1 shows, the future interconnection environment will be a
large-scale human-machine environment that unites three worlds:
Physical World---nature, natural and artificial materials, physical
devices, and networks;
Virtual World---the perceptual environment constructed mainly through
vision (text, images, color, graphs, and so on) and hearing, and to some
extent touch, smell, and taste; and
Mental World---ideals, religions, morals, culture, arts, wisdom, and
scientific knowledge, which all spring from thought, emotion, creativity,
Ideally, this environment will be an autonomous, living, sustainable, and
intelligent system within which society and nature evolve cooperatively.
It will gather and organize resources into semantically rich forms that
both machines and people can easily use. Geographically dispersed users
will cooperatively accomplish tasks and solve problems by using the
network to actively promote the flow of material, energy, techniques,
information, knowledge, and services in this environment."
In 2008, Zhuge proposed the viewpoint that the study of semantics should
be carried out in four worlds: real world, mental world, machine world and
document world, and studied the mapping and integration between Resource
Space Model, OWL and Database .
In 2009, he used the term Cyber-Society to represent the ideal of the
future interconnection environment. Exploring the ideal he proposed the
notion of Interactive Semantics in Artificial Intelligence Journal as
interaction is the most basic behavior in the future Cyber Society. The
classification based Resource Space Model and the link based Semantic Link
Network were integrated to reflect the semantic image. He presented
invited talks on Interactive Semantics in the University of Waterloo and
the University of Victoria in 2009. Approaches to discover semantic
communities and emerging semantics in semantic link network were proposed
in this year.
In April of 2010, he presented two invited talks titled "Interactive
Semantics in Cyber Physical Society" in the University of Hong Kong and
the City University of Hong Kong respectively.
In April of 2010, he used the term Cyber Physical Society to represent the
ideal of future interconnection environment in IEEE AINA2010 Keynote in
Australia . In his keynote, a Socio-Natural Thought Semantic Link
Network is proposed as the method for semantic networking in the Cyber
Physical Society. He pointed out "Humans have intelligence to observe and
participate in social processes, to think, and to know the effect of
establishing a relation. Humans can also actively select appropriate
relations and persons according to requirement, situation and social
rules. Machines are obviously limited in these abilities. Various
graph-based models have been used to connect resources in the cyber space.
Two issues are fundamental: (1) machines know little relation in human
society and the nature, data structures in machines are for machines to
process not for humans to read, so it is not realistic to expect machines
to discover social and natural laws and resolve relevant issues without
human instruction; and, (2) machines are hard to know the effect of
establishing and making use of relations, and to explain computing result
according to society and nature. The cause is that machines do not have
any worldview. Connecting various networks and machines with nature,
society, and even human minds can create a new world where individuals
have semantic images that can enhance mutual understanding."
Also in April of 2010, he proposed the notion of Cyber Physical Socio
Ecology as a new effort to cross disciplines .
CPSocio-SLN is a model and method for semantic networking in the natural
physical space, cyber space, social space, and mental space in the Cyber
Physical Society. It more focuses on diversity, dynamicity and evolution.
Viewing CPSocio-SLN as an evolution process through a series of
operations, we investigated its basic operations, completeness and
dynamicity before April 2010 .
In September of 2010, he presented a keynote titled "A Light-Weight
Semantics for CyberPhysical Socio Intelligence" at IFIP AI2010 in World
Computer Congress 2010.
In August 2010, the grant "Interactive Semantics in Cyber Physical
Society" has been approved by the NSF of China (PI: Prof. Hai Zhuge). That
means a systematic research will be carried out.
In October, 2010, the 1st Workshop on Cyber Physical Society was held in conjuction with SKG2010. Professor Zhuge published the paper "Cyber Physical Society" on the conference .
Prof.Zhuge is invited to present the keynote "The Complex Semantic Space
Model" at the 20th IEEE International Conference on Collaboration
Technologies and Infrastructures, June 27th-29th, 2011, Paris, France
(WETICE2011). The model is promosing in managing various resources in
different spaces of the Cyber-Physical Society.
It is an evolving concept so it is still unclear who
proposed this concept for the first time formally in scientific media. The early connecting various devices to the
Internet is different from the later idea of connecting physical objects.
A Cyber-Physical System (CPS)
A system featuring a tight combination of,
and coordination between, computational and physical elements. National Science Foundation of American proposed
this concept in 2006. There has been many cyber-physical sytems already in use such as various robots and airplanes
before the concept was proposed.
From system point of view, Cyber-Physical Society can also
be regarded as a complex system consisting of cyber subsystem, physical subsystem and social subsystem. From this view,
there is no significant difference between Cyber-Physical Society and Cyber-Physical-Social System. However, a limitation
of this view is that the influence from other subsystems is often neglected when studying the current subsystem.
International Workshop on Cyber-Physical Society(IWCPS2011)
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